Here’s an excellent article by Dr. Michael Brown defining what he considers to be: “The Essential Difference Between Christianity and Islam”
From the article:
The essential difference between Christianity and Islam is the difference between Jesus and Muhammad. Jesus was a spiritual leader who laid down His life to save the world. Muhammad was a spiritual leader, who became a political leader, then a violent military leader. Jesus accomplished His mission by dying on the cross. Muhammad accomplished his mission (at least in large part) by ruling by the sword.
Response: Dr. Brown identifies the essential difference between the two world religions as being reflected in the lives of the two founders. Jesus as a man of peace and Muhammad as a conqueror. The practical result is undeniable. Which is actually the ‘religion of peace’ in our world today?
I plan to publish a number of articles on this same subject, mostly identifying the theological differences which revolve around our different understandings of the character of God, the identity and divinity of Jesus Christ, and the differing approaches to eternal salvation.